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微塑料对土壤生态系统的影响及其修复技术

李信茹 董翠敏 石峰 周民 米屹东 苏海磊 刘雪松 王凡凡 魏源

李信茹,董翠敏,石峰,等.微塑料对土壤生态系统的影响及其修复技术[J].环境工程技术学报,2024,14(3):732-741 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230425
引用本文: 李信茹,董翠敏,石峰,等.微塑料对土壤生态系统的影响及其修复技术[J].环境工程技术学报,2024,14(3):732-741 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230425
LI X R,DONG C M,SHI F,et al.Effects of microplastics on soil ecosystems and remediation technologies[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,2024,14(3):732-741 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230425
Citation: LI X R,DONG C M,SHI F,et al.Effects of microplastics on soil ecosystems and remediation technologies[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,2024,14(3):732-741 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230425

微塑料对土壤生态系统的影响及其修复技术

doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230425
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41977294);国家重点研发计划项目(2021YFC3201001)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李信茹(1996—),女,博士,主要研究方向为新污染物环境行为,18813145607@163.com

    通讯作者:

    王凡凡(1984—),女,副研究员,博士,主要研究方向为新污染物环境行为,wang.fanfan@craes.org.cn

    魏源(1983—),男,研究员,博士,主要研究方向为新污染物环境行为,wei.yuan@craes.org.cn

  • 中图分类号: X53

Effects of microplastics on soil ecosystems and remediation technologies

  • 摘要:

    由于农膜破碎、污水灌溉等活动,土壤中的微塑料含量与丰度正逐渐超越海洋,并成为土壤的主要污染源之一。土壤生物能吸收土壤微塑料,其中粮食作物中的微塑料能通过食物链进入人体,造成人体微塑料暴露风险,此外,土壤微塑料也会直接对土壤产生毒性。概述了微塑料在土壤生态系统中的来源、迁移等环境行为,重点综述了微塑料对土壤生态系统的影响。结果表明:1)微塑料能通过土壤颗粒间的空隙、植物侧根裂缝及动物运动等在土壤环境系统中迁移转运;2)微塑料能影响土壤物理化学性质、植物生长发育、动物行为和微生物多样性;3)微生物和酶能降解土壤环境中的微塑料,并直接减少土壤系统中的微塑料,而生物炭可以减轻微塑料对土壤生态系统的毒性,三者均为土壤微塑料修复技术的潜在选择。最后,提出了土壤微塑料未来可能的研究方向,以期为土壤微塑料的污染防治提供指导。

     

  • 图  1  微塑料在土壤生态系统中的主要行为

    Figure  1.  Main behaviors of microplastics in soil ecosystems

    图  2  土壤微塑料对植物生长的影响

    Figure  2.  Effects of microplastics in soil on growth of plants

    表  1  微塑料对土壤物理性质的影响

    Table  1.   Effects of microplastics on soil physical properties

    种类 浓度/% 土壤基质 处理时间 结果 数据来源
    PP、HDPE、PA、PES PA、HDPE均为梯度浓度,0.05、0.10、0.20、0.40;PP、PES均为梯度浓度,0.25、0.50、1.00、2.00 壤土 35 d 所有微塑料均影响土壤容重,PES增加土壤持水能力 文献[39]
    合成纤维、HDPE、PLA 合成纤维为0.001;
    HDPE和PLA均为0.1
    砂质黏壤土 30 d 当暴露于HDPE时,土壤的pH显著低于暴露于其他处理时。对照处理的土壤平均质量直径分别比添加纤维、HDPE和PLA的土壤大24%、35%和28%。对照土壤大于2 000 µm的大团聚体数量分别比HDPE和PLA土壤大60%和53%。相反,与对照土壤相比,暴露于微塑料的土壤中63~250 µm的微团聚体数量明显更高 文献[40]
    PES PES为梯度浓度,0.01、0.3 黏壤土 1 a 土壤容重、土壤团聚体粒径分布和饱和导水率均无显著变化。0.3%浓度PES处理的土壤中30 μm的孔隙显著增加 文献[41]
    PES、HDPE、PP、PS、PET PES为0.2;HDPE、PS、PP、PET均为2 壤土 2个月 HDPE、PES、PET、PP和PS降低了土壤容重;PA、PES和PS显著减少水稳定性团聚体;所有的微塑料均改变土壤结构,其影响程度各不相同 文献[36]
      注:PP(polypropylene)为聚丙烯;HDPE(high density polyethylene)为高密度聚乙烯;PA(polyamide)为聚酰胺;PES(polyester)为聚酯;PLA(polylactic acid)为聚乳酸;PS(polystyrene)为聚苯乙烯;PET(polyethylene terephthalate)为聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  植物对微塑料的吸收

    Table  2.   Absorption of microplastics in plants

    微塑料 培养条件 微塑料信息 植物 吸收情况 数据来源
    携带荧光与否 官能团修饰 粒径/μm 浓度/(mg/kg) 地下部 地上部
    PS 水培 + COOHNH2-F 0.2 50、100 拟南芥 NM 文献[45]
    0.05 10、100、1 000 洋葱 NM 文献[46]
    0.1~1、5 10、20 胡萝卜 √(但未观察到5 μm的微塑料) 文献[28]
    + 0.1 100 蚕豆 NM 文献[47]
    + 0.1、0.3、0.5、0.7 50 黄瓜 √(茎/叶片/花/果实) 文献[32]
    + 0.2 50 生菜 文献[48]
    + 0.2、2 50 生菜/小麦 文献[4]
    + 0.1 0.01、0.1、1、10 小麦 文献[49]
    + 0.1 1、10 生菜/萝卜 × 文献[50]
    + 羧基 0.1 0.1、1、10 水稻 × 文献[51]
    + 0.08、1 40 水稻 文献[52]
    + 0.098 0.16、0.8、4、20、100 水蕨 NM 文献[53]
    0.05 100、1 000 水稻 文献[54]
    铕(Eu) 0.2 0.02~500 生菜/小麦 文献[55]
    0.2 25 白菜 文献[56]
    土培 + 羧基 281) 10、100 绿豆 NM 文献[57]
    + 0.2 500 小麦 × 文献[4]
    + 0.2 500 小麦 文献[48]
    铕(Eu) 0.2 1、10 生菜 文献[55]
    + 0.02 20、40 豌豆 文献[58]
    PMMA 水培 + 0.096 75±0.058 2 000 大麦 × 文献[59]
      注:+表示有该种处理;-表示无该种处理;√表示已观察到微塑料吸收;×表示未观察到微塑料吸收;NM表示未进行微塑料吸收情况观察。PS为聚苯乙烯;PMMA为聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯。1)单位为nm。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-06-01
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