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酸沉降背景下太湖流域碱基离子流失特征模拟研究

卓小可 程中华 张弛 张彦 徐高颖 于涛

卓小可,程中华,张弛,等.酸沉降背景下太湖流域碱基离子流失特征模拟研究[J].环境工程技术学报,2022,12(3):666-674 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210209
引用本文: 卓小可,程中华,张弛,等.酸沉降背景下太湖流域碱基离子流失特征模拟研究[J].环境工程技术学报,2022,12(3):666-674 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210209
ZHUO X K,CHENG Z H,ZHANG C,et al.Simulation study on the characteristics of base ion loss in Taihu Lake Watershed under the background of acid deposition[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,2022,12(3):666-674 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210209
Citation: ZHUO X K,CHENG Z H,ZHANG C,et al.Simulation study on the characteristics of base ion loss in Taihu Lake Watershed under the background of acid deposition[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,2022,12(3):666-674 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210209

酸沉降背景下太湖流域碱基离子流失特征模拟研究

doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210209
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41871079)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    卓小可(1995—),男,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为水环境化学,MZ120190857@yzu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    于涛(1968—),男,研究员,主要研究方向为环境地理学,yutao0325@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: X52

Simulation study on the characteristics of base ion loss in Taihu Lake Watershed under the background of acid deposition

  • 摘要:

    太湖流域是我国酸沉降较严重的区域之一,酸沉降对流域碱基离子流失产生了显著影响。通过室内模拟试验,研究了流域内代表性碳酸盐岩及其风化产物和流域分布广泛的沙壤土在不同pH模拟酸溶液作用下碱基离子的释放特征。结果表明:1)碳酸盐岩中碱基离子释放量与酸溶液pH和粒径均呈显著负相关(P<0.01)。在10 d试验期内,Ca2+释放量最小值为0.26 g/kg,最大值达14.30 g/kg,且比K+、Na+和Mg2+释放量高1个数量级。2)碳酸盐岩风化产物与沙壤土中碱基离子对模拟酸溶液的敏感性为Ca2+>Mg2+>K+。其释放量不仅与模拟酸溶液pH有关,还取决于介质本身特征(本身离子总量、成土母质环境及交换态离子量)。3)太湖流域不同介质对模拟酸溶液的缓冲能力存在显著差异,表现为碳酸盐岩>白云岩风化产物>石灰岩风化产物>沙壤土。分析认为,大量的碳酸盐与质子迅速发生的中和作用是碳酸盐岩及其风化产物具有较强缓冲能力的关键因素。

     

  • 图  1  模拟试验用材料取样位置

    Figure  1.  Sampling location of materials for simulation test

    图  2  模拟酸雨淋溶下碳酸盐岩中Ca2+和Mg2+释放特征

    Figure  2.  Characteristics of Ca2+ and Mg2+ release from carbonate rocks under simulated acid rain leaching

    图  3  模拟酸雨淋溶下碳酸盐岩中K+和Na+释放特征

    Figure  3.  Characteristics of K+ and Na+ release from carbonate rocks under simulated acid rain leaching

    图  4  碳酸盐岩风化产物和沙壤土中各碱基离子释放量对比

    Figure  4.  Comparison of base ions release from weathering products of carbonate rocks and sandy loam soil

    图  5  不同岩土淋出液pH变化

    Figure  5.  Change of pH of leaching solution in different rock and soil

    图  6  碳酸盐岩缓冲过程离子浓度变化(以pH=4.5为例)

    Figure  6.  Variation of ions concentration in carbonate rocks buffering process (taking pH=4.5 as an example)

    表  1  模拟试验用土的基本理化性质

    Table  1.   Basic physical and chemical properties of rock soil for simulation test

    试验材料pH电导率/(µS/cm)交换态/(g/kg)酸提取态/(g/kg)总量/(g/kg)
    K+Na+Ca2+Mg2+Ca2+Mg2+K+Na+Ca2+Mg2+
    白云岩风化产物7.59211.400.140.024.110.263.280.1117.304.7212.189.06
    石灰岩风化产物7.34138.400.190.023.550.121.100.0718.182.1011.867.03
    沙壤土6.80120.800.100.041.590.310.320.0814.2313.763.356.02
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  模拟试验用原岩的基本理化性质

    Table  2.   Basic physical and chemical properties of original rock in simulation test

    岩石类型粒径/mmK+总量/(g/kg)Na+总量/(g/kg)Ca2+总量/(g/kg)Mg2+总量/(g/kg)
    白云岩细(0.15~0.36)5.754.0174.307.25
    中(0.36~2.00)5.113.9476.687.30
    粗(2.00~5.00)5.344.6077.057.94
    石灰岩细(0.15~0.36)0.250.17269.380.63
    中(0.36~2.00)0.260.15267.380.60
    粗(2.00~5.00)0.250.17255.560.69
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  模拟酸雨淋溶下碳酸盐岩风化产物和沙壤土中碱基离子释放特征

    Table  3.   Characteristics of base ions release from weathering products of carbonate rocks and sandy loam soil under simulated acid rain leaching

    试验材料pHK+Na+Ca2+Mg2+碱基离子总量
    释放量/(g/kg)释放率/%释放量/(g/kg)释放率/%释放量/(g/kg)释放率/%释放量/(g/kg)释放率/%释放量/(g/kg)释放率/%
    白云岩风化产物2.00.160.90.051.18.1767.00.515.68.8920.6
    石灰岩风化产物2.00.201.10.041.95.6347.50.213.06.0815.5
    沙壤土2.00.130.90.050.42.0059.70.437.12.617.0
    注:释放率=(各离子释放量/原土壤中各离子总量)×100%。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-27
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-07

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