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不同粒径大气颗粒物中金属元素分布与风险评估研究进展

支敏康 张凯 吕文丽

支敏康,张凯,吕文丽.不同粒径大气颗粒物中金属元素分布与风险评估研究进展[J].环境工程技术学报,2022,12(4):998-1006 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210324
引用本文: 支敏康,张凯,吕文丽.不同粒径大气颗粒物中金属元素分布与风险评估研究进展[J].环境工程技术学报,2022,12(4):998-1006 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210324
ZHI M K,ZHANG K,LÜ W.A review of research advances in the distributions and risk assessments of metal elements in atmospheric particles with different particle sizes[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,2022,12(4):998-1006 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210324
Citation: ZHI M K,ZHANG K,LÜ W.A review of research advances in the distributions and risk assessments of metal elements in atmospheric particles with different particle sizes[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,2022,12(4):998-1006 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210324

不同粒径大气颗粒物中金属元素分布与风险评估研究进展

doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210324
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(42075182);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0213003);大气重污染成因与治理攻关项目(DQGG0304-05)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    支敏康(1997—),男,硕士研究生,主要从事大气环境和金属元素风险评估研究,1289184929@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    张凯(1977—),女,研究员,博士,主要从事大气环境和大气化学研究,zhangkai@craes.org.cn

  • 中图分类号: X513

A review of research advances in the distributions and risk assessments of metal elements in atmospheric particles with different particle sizes

  • 摘要:

    金属元素(MEs)是大气颗粒物的重要组成部分。综述了不同粒径大气颗粒物中MEs的分布、生态风险和人体健康风险评估的研究现状。在颗粒物中MEs主要呈现3种粒径分布:细模态单峰型、粗模态单峰型和双峰型,对应于不同的污染源。富集因子法、地累积指数法和潜在生态风险指数法是MEs生态风险评价最常用的3种方法,大部分MEs在细模态的富集程度远高于粗模态,我国城市大气颗粒物均呈现非常高的综合潜在生态风险(风险指数>1 000)。Cd、Pb、As是目前主要的污染元素,应重点关注。不同粒径段的颗粒物会沉积在呼吸系统不同部位。健康风险评估结果显示,我国大部分城市地区均存在重金属元素对人体的致癌风险和非致癌风险,会对人体产生致癌风险的MEs有Cr、As和Cd,Mn可能引起非致癌风险。因此,将不同粒径段颗粒物中MEs的分布特征和风险评估结合起来是未来该领域的重点研究方向。

     

  • 图  1  中国不同城市大气颗粒物中MEs潜在生态风险等级

    注:数据来源同表1

    Figure  1.  Potential ecological risk grade of MEs in atmospheric particles of different Chinese cities

    表  1  中国不同城市大气颗粒物中MEs污染程度

    Table  1.   MEs pollution levels of atmospheric particles in different cities in China

    城市采样时间颗粒物污染元素污染等级数据来源
    北京2016年3月—2017年1月PM2.5Cu、Zn、As、Cd、Pb、Ag、Mo中度及以上文献[26,38]
    天津2011年11—12月PM2.5Cu、Zn、Hg、Cd、Pb中度及以上文献[39]
    邯郸2017年1月PM2.5Cu、As、Cd重度到极重度文献[40]
    太原2012年2月PM2.5Cu、Zn、Hg、Cd、Pb、Ni中度及以上文献[41]
    济南2016年10月—2017年10月PM2.5Cu、Zn、Cd、Pb重度及以上文献[42]
    合肥2016年5—6月扬尘Cu、Zn、Sb、Ga、As、Pb偏重度到极重度文献[43]
    黄石2015年1—12月PM2.5
    PM10
    Cu、Cd、As、Pb重度及以上文献[44]
    株洲2011年12月—2012年1月、2012年8月PM2.5
    PM10
    Zn、Cu、Cd、Pb重度及以上文献[45]
    广州2016年PM2.5Cd、As、Sb偏重度文献[46]
    东莞Cd、As、Sb中度到重度
    佛山Pb、Cd、As、Sb偏重度到重度
    珠海Cd偏重度
    肇庆Cd、Sb偏重度
    惠州Cd中度
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  健康风险评估模型参数及取值

    Table  2.   Parameters and values of health risk assessment models

    项目参数定义单位数值
    成人儿童
    暴露参数EF暴露频率d/a350350
    ED暴露年限a246
    AT平均暴露时间d365×ED(非致癌作用)、

    365×70(致癌作用)
    365×ED(非致癌作用)、

    365×70(致癌作用)
    BW平均体重kg6015
    CF单位转换系数kg/mg10−610−6
    手-口摄入IngR摄入降尘速率mg/d100200
    呼吸吸入InhR呼吸速率m3/d15.2
    PEF颗粒物排放因子m3/kg1.36×1091.36×109
    皮肤接触SA皮肤暴露面积cm257002800
    SL皮肤黏着度mg/(cm2·d)0.20.2
    ABS皮肤吸收因子0.0010.001
    下载: 导出CSV
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