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聚焦水生态环境突出问题,持续推进长江生态保护修复

李海生 杨鹊平 赵艳民

李海生,杨鹊平,赵艳民.聚焦水生态环境突出问题,持续推进长江生态保护修复[J].环境工程技术学报,2022,12(2):336-347 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20220091
引用本文: 李海生,杨鹊平,赵艳民.聚焦水生态环境突出问题,持续推进长江生态保护修复[J].环境工程技术学报,2022,12(2):336-347 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20220091
LI H S,YANG Q P,ZHAO Y M.Focusing on water eco-environment problems and sustainably promoting ecological conservation and restoration of the Yangtze River[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,2022,12(2):336-347 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20220091
Citation: LI H S,YANG Q P,ZHAO Y M.Focusing on water eco-environment problems and sustainably promoting ecological conservation and restoration of the Yangtze River[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,2022,12(2):336-347 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20220091

聚焦水生态环境突出问题,持续推进长江生态保护修复

doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20220091
基金项目: 长江生态环境保护修复联合研究项目(第一期)(2019-LHYJ-01)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李海生(1964—),男,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事水污染治理、环境影响评价、能源与环境政策等研究,lihs@craes.org.cn

  • 中图分类号: X522

Focusing on water eco-environment problems and sustainably promoting ecological conservation and restoration of the Yangtze River

  • 摘要: 加强长江生态环境保护,事关长江流域社会经济发展大局,不仅是维护长江流域生态环境安全的客观要求,也是落实中央重大政策的重要内容。依托长江生态环境保护修复联合研究项目(第一期),对长江流域水生态环境存在的问题进行诊断,并剖析成因,提出强化长江流域水生态环境保护修复的政策建议。长江流域水生态环境问题主要表现为资源开发导致河流连通性下降,湖泊湿地面积萎缩;污染物排放强度仍然较大,汛期水质恶化现象普遍;水生态系统退化,湖泊水华、长江口赤潮频发,渔业资源量下降,珍稀特有水生生物保护任重道远;水环境风险问题突出,突发性水污染事故频发。分析其成因主要包括:城市化、人口集聚进程加快与环境基础设施短板存在矛盾,生态环境治理协同性仍然不足,国土空间管控不到位,气候变化带来新挑战。据此提出如下对策建议:1)在流域水平上强化国土空间管控,落实“三线一单”;2)补齐基础设施短板,深化污染防治;3)推进“三水”统筹,持续开展生态修复;4)加强政策协同,推进多元共治;5)强化制度创新,提升科技支撑能力。为持续打好长江保护修复攻坚战,推动长江经济带成为我国生态优先绿色发展主战场提供参考。

     

  • 图  1  长江经济带区域废水与主要污染物排放量及其在全国的占比

    Figure  1.  Discharge of wastewater and main pollutants in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and their proportions in the whole country

    图  2  2008—2020年长江流域及干流国控监测断面水质类别变化

    Figure  2.  Changes of water quality categories of national controlled monitoring sections in the mainstream of the Yangtze River in 2008-2020

    图  3  2020年长江流域优良水质断面占比

    Figure  3.  Percentage of excellent and good water quality sections in the Yangtze River Basin in 2020

    图  4  近30年长江口及邻近海域赤潮发生次数

    Figure  4.  Red tide outbreaks in the Yangtze River estuary and adjacent sea area in recent 30 years

    图  5  2006—2019年长江经济带突发环境事件数量分布

    Figure  5.  Number and distribution of environmental emergencies in the Yangtze River Economic Belt in 2006-2019

    图  6  2011—2019年长江经济带各省(市)及全国人均GDP

    Figure  6.  Per capita GDP of the provinces in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the whole country during 2011-2019

    图  7  2011—2019年长江经济带各省(市)及全国单位建成区面积环境基础设施投资

    Figure  7.  Environmental infrastructure investments per square kilometers of built-up area in the provinces of the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the whole country in 2011-2019

    图  8  2011—2020年长江经济带各省(市)及全国城市污水处理能力

    Figure  8.  Urban sewage treatment capacity of the provinces in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the whole country in 2011-2020

    表  1  长江经济带各省(市)国控监测断面TP平均浓度

    Table  1.   Average TP concentration of national controlled monitoring sites in each province in the Yangtze River Economic Belt mg/L

    省(市)2016年2017年2018年2019年2020年
    上海0.160.140.120.130.11
    江苏0.130.120.120.110.10
    浙江0.120.110.090.110.10
    安徽0.100.100.090.070.07
    江西0.080.090.090.070.06
    湖北0.100.090.080.070.07
    湖南0.070.070.070.060.05
    重庆0.110.110.090.080.07
    四川0.140.120.090.090.07
    贵州0.130.100.080.070.06
    云南0.160.160.150.110.10
    区域0.110.100.090.080.07
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  长江经济带各省(市)国控监测断面类~类水质断面占比

    Table  2.   Proportion of national controlled monitoring sites with water quality category Ⅰ-Ⅲ in each province in the Yangtze River Economic Belt %

    省(市)2016年2017年2018年2019年2020年
    上海75909090100
    江苏6161617071
    浙江7493899396
    安徽7272718184
    江西8277798289
    湖北8284868590
    湖南7978798285
    重庆938890100100
    四川7276899899
    贵州8681959597
    云南4945555564
    区域7677818488
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-26
  • 录用日期:  2022-02-23
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