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生物炭材料特征及其在灰水处理中应用研究进展

戴畅 何志琴 李云 王斌 陈晓冬 方菲 秦晓鹏 李志涛

戴畅,何志琴,李云,等.生物炭材料特征及其在灰水处理中应用研究进展[J].环境工程技术学报,2024,14(1):268-277 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230301
引用本文: 戴畅,何志琴,李云,等.生物炭材料特征及其在灰水处理中应用研究进展[J].环境工程技术学报,2024,14(1):268-277 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230301
DAI C,HE Z Q,LI Y,et al.Research progress on the characteristics of biochar material and its application in greywater treatment[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,2024,14(1):268-277 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230301
Citation: DAI C,HE Z Q,LI Y,et al.Research progress on the characteristics of biochar material and its application in greywater treatment[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,2024,14(1):268-277 doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230301

生物炭材料特征及其在灰水处理中应用研究进展

doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230301
基金项目: 科技基础资源调查专项(2021FY101004)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    戴畅(2000—),女,硕士研究生,主要从事农村生活污水处理研究,daichang202222@163.com

    通讯作者:

    李云(1987—),女,副研究员,博士,主要从事水处理技术及资源化利用研究,liyunliyun1234567@163.com

    王斌(1991— ),男,工程师,主要研究方向为农村生态环境治理技术,wangbin@tcare-mee.cn

  • 中图分类号: X703

Research progress on the characteristics of biochar material and its application in greywater treatment

  • 摘要:

    生物炭具有比表面积大、孔隙度高、表面官能团丰富等优点,在灰水处理方面有较大的应用潜力。介绍了灰水的水质水量特点及常见处理技术,重点对生物炭的性质、改性方法以及生物炭基质在灰水处理方面的国内外应用研究进展进行了综述,并分析了生物炭的再生性能。结果表明:目前应用于灰水处理的生物炭大多是木质源生物炭,木质源生物炭pH处于碱性范围,具有大比表面积、高孔隙度等优点,其比表面积和孔隙度大多数在0~520 m2/g和48%~83%;众多改性方法中,金属盐生物炭改性的研究较多,采用该方法改性后提高了生物炭的吸附能力,并使其磁化从而方便后期的分离回收;生物炭基质多应用于人工湿地、绿墙等生态处理系统进行灰水处理,在最优运行条件下对灰水中有机物、营养物质的去除率均能达到90%,具有良好的应用前景。最后对生物炭在灰水处理应用中存在的问题进行了总结,并从加强新污染物去除、生物炭再生及节能减耗3个方面对未来研究进行了展望。

     

  • 表  1  不同来源灰水水质

    Table  1.   Water quality analysis of greywater from different sources

    灰水来源 地区 年份 COD/(mg/L) 浊度/NTU 氨氮浓度/
    (mg/L)
    TN浓度/
    (mg/L)
    TP浓度/
    (mg/L)
    表面活性剂
    浓度/(mg/L)
    总大肠菌群数/
    (MPN/mL)
    洗浴灰水 中国北京[8] 2017 80.4~145.6 50.3~80.7 12.3~17.8 1.3~1.9 6.2~9.5
    中国成都[9] 2021 70.2~182.5 3.5~8.7 5.2~13.3 0.8~3.7 4.1~12.6
    巴西圣保罗州[7] 2017 273 50.3 5.3 4×103
    洗衣灰水 韩国首尔[10] 2022 139.2±5.5 4.2±0.4 0.1±0.0
    中国宿迁[11] 2022 286 2.06 0.083 33.4
    中国南方某村庄[6] 2021 503±234 4.3±3.9 11.4±5.9 0.5±0.3 45.4±26.9
    厨房灰水 意大利帕多瓦市[12] 2021 855 139 6.89 15.7
    印度卡拉格普尔[13] 2022 30±3 13±2
    中国南方某村庄[6] 2021 478±110 4.7±2.1 14.3±4.4 1.1±0.4 14.1±8.5
    混合灰水 希腊克里特岛[14] 2016 466 162 33 1.3 4.8×103
    印度乌塔拉汗省[15] 2020 554 150 14 8
    中国重庆[16] 2016 39~251 2.8~16.8 3.4~23.2 0.3~3.8 5.7~44
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  相关研究中应用于灰水处理的生物炭性质对比

    Table  2.   Comparison of the properties of biochar applied in greywater treatment in related studies

    制备原料 制备温度/℃ 粒径/mm 孔体积/(cm3/g) 比表面积/(m2/g) 总孔隙度/% 容重/(kg/m3) pH
    柳树[43] 450 1~1.4、2.8~5 63.3 270
    木材[44] 1.4、2.8、5 170~200 48~53
    硬木[45] 450 800.2 9.46
    硬木[40] 450 1.4~5 170~200 72~74 187
    椰壳[46] 0.15 0.1716 130.5
    牛油果树[47] 2~4.7、2 71~83 296~307
    木材[48] 1~5
    柳树和松树[49] 1~1.4和2.8~5 63.3 270 9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  生物炭不同改性方法原理

    Table  3.   Principles of different modification methods for biochar

    改性方法 常用改性试剂 改性原理
    酸改性[51] HCl、H3PO4、HNO3 引入酸性官能团,改变
    生物炭的多孔结构
    碱改性[52] NaOH、KOH等 引入含氧官能团,增加
    生物炭的比表面积
    蒸汽活化
    改性[53]
    蒸汽 使高温蒸汽通过生物炭的孔隙,以增加比表面积;引入多孔结构
    有机试剂
    改性[54]
    壳聚糖、甲醇、
    尿素等
    增加生物炭表面的
    官能团和吸附位点
    金属氧化物/
    金属盐改性[55]
    FeSO4、FeCl3、KMnO4 改变表面结构和性质,提高
    吸附能力,增强磁性
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  国内外不同生物炭工艺处理灰水效果对比

    Table  4.   Comparison of the effects of different biochar processes at home and abroad in treating greywater

    生物炭工艺 生物炭原料 进水浓度/(mg/L) 去除率/%
    COD NH4 +-N TP 表面活性剂 COD NH4 +-N TP 表面活性剂
    潮汐流人工湿地 核桃壳[25] 185 30 5 50 69.6±8.2 36.2±9.1 79.3
    吸附-生物处理系统 果壳、木材等[8] 80.4~145.6 12.3~17.8 1.3~1.9 6.2~9.5 80.4 80 90
    椰壳[16] 169~332 1.7~2.8 87.6 1.16 1)
    吸附-催化体系 椰壳[46] 120~180 20~50 2.5~4 5~25 88 75 66 88
    绿墙 木屑[27] 250~300 4.36±6.33 50.7±28.5 16.7±33.9 71.4±21.7
    香蕉[5] 2 004 16.9 71 99
    硬木[40] 332±103 7±3 19±6 95
    柳树[42] 1389 3.7 3.6 99.1 89.3
      1)为出水浓度,mg/L。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同生物炭再生技术特点对比

    Table  5.   Comparison of the characteristics of different biochar regeneration technologies

    生物炭再生方法特点
    微波辐射再生[72]再生时间短,降低污染风险,成本高
    热再生[73]再生效率高,应用广泛,再生损失大
    生物再生[63]成本低,设备简单,再生周期长
    溶剂再生[72]设备简单,再生时间长,可能存在环境污染
    超临界流体再生[74]生物炭损失大,操作维护成本高,
    仅处于实验室阶段
    下载: 导出CSV
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