The rapid testing technology for heavy metal ions in environmental samples is in urgent need in the screening level in unexpected environmental pollution incidents and regional ecological risk assessment. Rapid detection methods of heavy metal ions in environmental samples include electrochemical methods and biological methods. There are standardized products of electrochemical anodic stripping voltammetry that can detect several heavy metal ions simultaneously. But the test costs are relatively high. With the nano-particle technology and quartz crystal microbalance analyzer introduced, ASV method will continue to reduce testing costs; Biological detection methods, including the immunoassay and functional DNA detection techniques. Heavy metal ions immunoassay has high-through out samples, testing, low cost. It has been widely used in food examination, which the immunoassay of mercury ions in environmental samples has become the standard testing methods. Immunosensor technology will extend the application space of rapid detection of heavy metal ions. Research of functional DNA sensor will provide a new technical means for the detection of heavy metal ions, but these studies in laboratory have not reached the level of practical application.